(Looking for psychological patterns in the attitudinal data)




                        10%   and        75 % motion coherence



A Key Business Issue: Attracting and Retaining Customers and Employees


Statements such as “we have the best solution" or slogans such as "customer first" or "best in the industry" or "won consumer survey based awards" or “best place to work” or “best employer award” or "listed in 100 best workplace to work" that are sometimes made on corporate websites or brochures or in PowerPoint presentations are not enough to attract or retain customers and employees.

In today’s global and digital economy, prices and salaries that are offered by national and /or  international companies can be rapidly compared by using the Internet. This means that offers that are emotionally or psychologically based are becoming ever more important in order for companies to maintain their competitive edge both in regard to their customers and their employees.

Does your company know why people join your company and / or buy from your company and / or continue using your company despite having many other options or offerings? The reason might not be because of purely economic reasons; there might be some cognitive or emotional reasons as well.

In order to attract new customers and keep existing customers and employees, all businesses need to have an accurate understanding of the psychological attitudinal development processes that are in operation in regard to their company and its brands.

 A question that a company cannot afford to be ignorant about is "What are the 'cognitive / mental' unobservable driving factors that attract customers and employees to their company or brands?" To answer this question it is necessary to carry out survey based research, however, most traditional surveys and their methods of analysis do not address this fundamental psychological attitudinal issue correctly. What is required is the incorporation of principles of psychology and psychological measurement and analysis into such surveys.

However, most marketing research textbooks do not provide any in-depth discussion of the psychometric issues that need to be used for such survey research. As a result, a lack of awareness of psychometric issues exists, among most research analysts or statisticians in both internationally known branded agencies as well in local agencies.


Some Suggestions: Try to Understand Customers and Employees from a Psychological Perspective 

Most internationally branded agencies use a list of 12-60 questions to assess customer satisfaction, brand image or employee engagement. They rarely understand the need to help clients to understand the latent perceptual factors that might be influencing the behavior of their clients, customers or employees. They offer proprietary solutions and percentage or regression based results, tables and graphs and do not carry out any psychometric tests.

We suggest that all companies who are engaging in customer satisfaction / loyalty or brand image studies, or employee engagement studies, should develop their own company specific attitudinal models based on psychometric principles. A detailed explanation of this process is provided in our technical papers and brochures. We strongly recommend using some advanced techniques that are often used in psychological measurement  such as path analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, reliability tests etc. in all attitudinal data analysis projects instead of regression or percentage based analyses.  

To address this issue we have developed a "Psycho-Metric" approach. This approach will enable companies to understand what motivates their customers / employees / survey participants, and to know how to improve their attachment or to positively influence their attitudinal behavior towards their company / brands. The difference between this approach and standard approaches is outlined in the table below.


What is Psycho-Metric? (click)


   Technical Details

Table: Traditional “%” & Statistical approach vs.  Psycho-Metric approach 


“%” & Statistical approach

 Psycho-Metric approach

1. Fundamental  


Statistical Data Analytical Approach

Assessing factual data

Psychological Measurement and Data Analysis Approach

Assessing latent / perceptual opinion

2. Theoretical    


No Theoretical Framework or basis is used when analyzing data

A Conceptual Psychometric Attitudinal Development Theory is used when developing a model

3. Objective

Investigating a rating of scores in terms of high or low scores or increase or decrease in scores

Investigating perceptual unobservable factors that might be responsible for the development of attitudes towards a company or brand.

4. Over-riding


 Identifying factual % of various attributes or highly influencing items or questions (i.e. using regression analysis)

Identifying patterns in attitudinal data where scores of all questions or items in an attitudinal model move simultaneously in the same direction

5. Assumption

A single attribute or question can reveal a perception

Only multi-item or several psychometrically reliable questions can reveal perceptions

6. Analysis

Sometimes associations between items or questions /attributes are assessed in a stand-alone fashion in several independent steps

Associations between items or questions / attributes are always assessed simultaneously (after necessary reliability & validity tests have been carried out using a single path model)

7. Results

i) Provide no understanding of how the overall attitude development processes of survey participants takes place.

ii) Secondly, the scores on specific items go up & down all the time in various surveys.

   iii) Unreliable action planning and lack of any verifiable evidence of improvement.

i) Provide a clear understanding of how the attitude development process takes places in the minds of survey participants.

ii) If the attitude development process is understood correctly a very reliable action plan can be produced and levels of desirable behavior will increase.

iii) Very reliable action planning and provision of verifiable  evidence of improvement.

     Source: Psycho-Metric Consulting Work, (email: sseth at

If you need any services related to Psycho-Metric data modeling be it for Brand Image or Customer Satisfaction or Employee Engagement or New Product Development please contact us with your requirements at We will be happy to assist you in your research and data management efforts. We are based in Japan and would be happy to provide our Psycho-Metric services in different parts of the world. We also have a data center in India as well as affiliated researchers in various parts of the Australasian region.  

Current Clients:

Currently we are serving several Research Agencies; Financial Institutions, Consumer Entertainment as well as IT companies. We would be happy to provide you with references if requested.


Analysis Check Mark System 

(Independent Evaluation of Modeling)



Main Contacts in Japan: 

Dr. Sanjay Seth, M.Sc., MBA, Ph. D.

Util Inc.


Tel: 81-50-5809-5377    

eFax: 1-916-237-3101


Model Development Team Members: 

  Prof. Don Scott, MBA, Ph. D.


 Prof. Osam Sato, MA 



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